WEB BROWSER


Web browser

 

In the previous section, you have learnt about various types of web browsers. Now the question arises what is web browsers? Why we use? Etc.. now we will discuss more deeply about web browsers and its use ..

What is web browser?

A browser is software that is used to access the internet. A browser lets you visit websites and do activities within them like login, view multimedia, link from one site to another, visit one page from another, print, send and receive email, among many other activities. The most common browser software titles on the market are: Microsoft Internet Explorer, Google’s Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple’s Safari, and Opera. Browser availability depends on the operating system your computer is using (for example: Microsoft Windows, Linux, Ubuntu, Mac OS, among others).

 

How Browsers work?

World Wide Web works on the client-server model. A user computer works as a client which can receive and send data to the server. When a web page is requested by a user, the browser contacts the requested server (where the website is stored) and by fetching and interpreting the requested files, it displays the web page on the computer screen.

 

 

Although working of the browser is not as simple as it seems, since a plenty of internal tasks are performed before a webpage appears on the screen. The whole process takes place in these three steps:

  1. Contact to DNS Server – When a user enters a URL into the address bar and hits ‘enter’, at first browser contacts the DNS server. A DNS server stores the IP addresses of the server associated with the corresponding domain names. The DNS server takes the domain name from the browser and returns the corresponding IP address to the browser.
  2. Contact to Server – After getting the IP address of the server for the requested webpage, browser sends a request to that server for the desired files. For example consider the following URL :

http://www. xyz.com/articles

This URL is divided into three parts. First one is HTTP – it is a protocol named Hyper Text Transfer Protocol which defines the way browser communicates with the server. The second part is www.xyz.com which is translated by the DNS server with the IP address. It is the address of a computer (Web Server) where the requested web page is stored. The third part is ‘articles’ which tells the address of the file that is located in the root folder of the website.

 

HTTP protocols are used to transfer the webpage named ‘articles’ to the browser. The protocol decides the format as well as the methods of communication between web client and server.

 

 

Cookies and session:

Cookies are small files which are stored on a user’s computer. They are designed to hold a modest amount of data specific to a particular client and website, and can be accessed either by the web server or the client computer. This allows the server to deliver a page tailored to a particular user, or the page itself can contain some script which is aware of the data in the cookie and so is able to carry information from one visit to the website (or related site) to the next.

When are Cookies Created?

Writing data to a cookie is usually done when a new webpage is loaded – for example after a ‘submit’ button is pressed the data handling page would be responsible for storing the values in a cookie. If the user has elected to disable cookies then the write operation will fail, and subsequent sites which rely on the cookie will either have to take a default action, or prompt the user to re-enter the information that would have been stored in the cookie.

Types of Cookies

session cookie
Also called a transient cookie, a cookie that is erased when you close the Web browser. The session cookie is stored in temporary memory and is not retained after the browser is closed. Session cookies do not collect information from your computer. They typically will store information in the form of a session identification that does not personally identify the user.

persistent cookie 
Also called a permanent cookie, or a stored cookie, a cookie that is stored on your hard drive until it expires (persistent cookies are set with expiration dates) or until you delete the cookie. Persistent cookies are used to collect identifying information about the user, such as Web surfing behavior or user preferences for a specific Web site.

Session

session begins when a user logs in to or accesses a particular computer, program or web page and ends when the user logs out of or shuts down the computer, closes the program or web page. A session can temporarily store information related to the activities of the user while logged in. A session cookie is used in web pages for storing information in case the user leaves the web page or closes down their Internet browser. For example, this is one way a website can remember what is in your shopping cart if you leave and come back.

 

 

Cookies vs session

Cookies can be set to a long lifespan, which means that data stored in a cookie can be stored for months if not years. Cookies, having their data stored on the client, work smoothly when you have a cluster of web servers, whereas sessions are stored on the server, meaning in one of your web servers handles the first request, the other web servers in your cluster will not have the stored information.

Sessions are stored on the server, which means clients do not have access to the information you store about them – this is particularly important if you store shopping baskets or other information you do not want you visitors to be able to edit by hand by hacking their cookies. Session data, being stored on your server, does not need to be transmitted with each page; clients just need to send an ID and the data is loaded from the local file. Finally, sessions can be any size you want because they are held on your server, whereas many web browsers have a limit on how big cookies can be to stop rogue web sites chewing up gigabytes of data with meaningless cookie information.

 

 

Types of web browsers:

 

 

 

Internet explorer:

Internet Explorer is the free, default Web browser for the Microsoft Windows family of operating systems. Internet Explorer ships pre-installed on all modern Windows computers.

Microsoft Internet Explorer contains various Internet connection, network file sharing and security settings. Among other features, Internet Explorer supports:

  • proxy server configuration
  • auto-dialing a dialup Internet connection
  • FTP client capabilities
  • remote LAN administration

Internet Explorer has received much publicity for several network security holes that have been discovered in the past, but Internet Explorer remains the most popular Web browser in use worldwide.

The latest official release of IE is Internet Explorer 9 (IE9), with Internet Explorer 10 scheduled to be released on October 26th, 2012 as part of the new Windows 8 operating system. IE10 will offer significantly improved support for CSS3 and HTML5 while also serving as the engine that powers the Windows 8 Metro applications that utilize HTML5 and JavaScript.

IE10 will also be the default Web browser for smartphones and other mobile devices powered by the Windows Phone 8 mobile operating system.

 

 

Google chrome

Google Chrome browser is an open source program for accessing the World Wide Web and running Web-based applications.

The Google Chrome Web browser is based on the open source Chromium project. Google released Chrome in 2008 and issues several updates a year. It is available for Windows, Mac OS XLinuxAndroid and iOS operating systems. The Google Chrome browser takes a sandboxing-based approach to Web security. Each open website runs as its own process, which helps prevent malicious code on one page from affecting others (or the computer operating system at large). The browser also supports Web standards such as HTML5 and cascading style sheets (CSS).

Snapshot:

 

Mozilla

Mozilla Firefox is a free open source web browser for the computer. It displays web pages written in the computer language HTML. It is made by the Mozilla Foundation. It works on all common operating systems. The makers didn’t put in all possible features by design but rely on that feature extensions can be added with many available add-ons. This was done to make Firefox simple to use and safe.

 

 

Opera

 

Opera is a web browser developed by Opera Software. Opera runs on Microsoft Windows and OS X operating systems and uses the Blink layout engine. Users ofLinux and FreeBSD operating systems must install earlier versions which have thePresto layout engine. Opera editions are available for devices running the Android,iOSSymbianMaemoBadaBlackBerry and Windows Mobile operating systems, and Java ME.

Snapshot:

 

 

 

 

Safari

Safari is a web browser developed by Apple Inc. and included with the OS X and iOS operating systems. First released as a public beta on January 7, 2003, on the company’s OS X operating system, it became Apple’s default browser beginning with Mac OS X v10.3 “Panther”

 

 

 

Lets take look how to install web browser(google chrome) in your pc. There are following steps:

1

Go to the Google Chrome website or you can use any search engine just type “download google chrome” You can use any web browser to download Google Chrome. If you haven’t installed a browser, you can use your operating system’s preinstalled web browser (Internet Explorer for Windows and Safari for Mac OS X).

2

Click “Download Chrome”. This will open the Terms of Service window.

3

Determine if you want Chrome as your default browser. If you set it as the default browser, it will open whenever a link for a webpage is clicked in another program, such as email.

  • You can opt to send usage data back to Google by checking the box labeled “Help make Google Chrome better…” This will send back crash reports, preferences and button clicks. It does not send any personal information or track websites.

 

 

4

Click “Accept and Install” after reading the Terms of Service. The installer will start and you will have Google Chrome installed when it has finished. Depending on your browser settings, you may need to allow the program to run.

 

 

Google Chrome Pause or Cancel a Download in Progress

When you download files using Google Chrome you can pause or cancel that download. If you want to know how to pause or cancel downloads follow these steps.

Step 1:
Start downloading the file you need.

Step 2:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 3:
Click “Downloads” button.

Step 4:
If you need to pause the download click the”Pause” button next to the downloading file.

 

Step 5:
If you need to “Cancel” download click “Cancel” button next to the downloading file.

 

Google Chrome Open a Downloaded File

After the file has finished downloading you can open that file in three ways.

First way:

You can open the downloaded file by going to the location where the file was downloaded to on your computer.

 

Second way:

You can open that file by going to file download center in Google Chrome by following these steps:

 

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “Downloads” button.

Step 3:
Find your downloaded file you wish to open in the “Downloads” window and click on the link.

 

Third way:

Downloading files appear in the downloads bar at the bottom of your tab. Click the menu arrow next to your downloaded file, then select “Open”. You can also choose to have files automatically open when they have finished downloading by clicking the “Always open files of this type”.

Google Chrome Clear Auto-Opening Settings

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “Options” button.

Step 3:
Under “Google Chrome Options” window select ‘Under the Hood” tab.

Step 4:
“Under the Hood” tab go to “General” section and click “Clear auto-opening settings” button.

Step 5:
Finally click “Close” button.

 

 

Set as a Google Chrome Default Browser

If you want to set Google Chrome Default Browser in you computer, follow these steps to do it.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “Options” button.

Step 3:
Under “Google Chrome Options” window select “Basics” tab.

Step 4:
Under Google Chrome Basics tab go to Default browser section. And click “Make Google Chrome my default browser” button. Finally click “Close” button.

 

 

Set Google Chrome Startup Pages

In the Google Chrome web browser you can setup your startup page in three ways. You can have it display any web page as your home page each time you open a window, you can have it open the last window you had open the last time you closed the browser or you can have it open mulitple web pages all at once.

Set Up Home Page as Start Up Page

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “Options” button.

Step 3:
Under “Google Chrome Options” window select “Basics” tab.

Step 4:
Under “On startup” section click on the “Open the home page” section”.
Step 5:
Under the Basics tab go to “Home page” section and click on the “Open this page” line and enter your URL.

 

Restore the Pages that Were Open Last at Start Up

Step 1:
Click on the “Restore the pages that were open last” section in “On startup” menu.

 

Open Multiple Pages

For the first time in web browser history Google Chrome has given us the option to open multiple pages at one time on startup. Click the “Open the following pages” option. Under that section you can choose specific web pages that should display whenever you open a new browser window. Use the Add and Remove buttons to create this list. To set the web pages you already have open as your startup pages, click the Use Current button.

 

How to Setup Default Search Engine

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “Options” button.

Step 3:
Under “Google Chrome Options” window select “Basics” tab.

Step 4:
Under Google Chrome Basics tab go to Default search section. Click the list menu (“Google” is the default) and select your preferred search engine.

Step 4.1 – Click search engine list.

 

Step 4.2 – Select the search engine you prefer and click on it.

 

Step 4.3 – Final result.

How to Manage Google Chrome Search Engines

You can also “Add” , “Edit” and “Remove” search engines from your Google Chrome search engine list by following these steps.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “Options” button.

Step 3:
Under “Google Chrome Options” window select “Basics” tab.

Step 4:
Under Google Chrome Basics tab go to Default search section. And click “Manage” button.

How to Add Search Engine for Google Chrome Search list

Step 5:
To add a search engine to Google Chrome click the “Add” button in the Search Engines window.

Step 5.1:
Now you can Insert “Name”, “Keyword” and “URL” in the “Add Search Engine” window. Finally click “OK” button.

 

How to Edit Search Engine for Google Chrome Search list

Step 6:
Click on the search engine name for you want to edit.

Step 6.1:
Now press Edit button.

 

Step 6.2:
In the “Edit Search Engine” window you can edit you selected search engine detail.

How to Remove Search Engine Name From the List

Step 70:
Click on the search engine name for you want to remove.

Step 7.1:
Click “Remove” button.

 

Step 8:
If you want, you can set one of the search engines you just added as the Google Chrome default search engine by selecting the search engine name and clicking the “Make Default” button in the same “Search Engines” Window.

 

 

Google Chrome Text Zoom

The Text Zoom feature in Google Chrome is used to make changes to the font size of the page. Using this zoom option you can increase or decrease the size of text on the web page. You can make a temporary change to the font or permanently change the fonts using “Fonts and Languages” dialog box.

Change Font Size

Step 1:
Click on the “Page” menu.

Step 2:
Select “Text Zoom” option.

Step 3:
Select “Larger” or “Smaller” as necessary.
If you want to have the text return to its original size, select “Normal”.
You can also use the short cut keys (as seen behind the words above) to do this without going to the menu.

Change Google Chrome Page Font Settings in Fonts and Languages Dialog Box

You can also change these page font settings using the Google Chrome “Fonts and Languages” dialog box. Follow theses steps to do it.

Step 1:
Click the” Tools” menu .

Step 2:
Select “Options” option in the Tools menu.

Step 3:
Click the “Minor Tweaks” tab.

Step 4:
Click the “Change fonts and language settings” button.

Step 5:
Click the Fonts and Encoding tab and click the Change button for the font type you’d like to adjust. This opens the Windows font menu for that font type, where you can choose a different font, font style, and size.

Step 6:
Click “OK”.

Step 7:
Finally click the “Close” button.

How to Open New Tabs in Google Chrome

When you open a new tab, Google Chrome preloads it with useful information. With one click, you can get to the web resources you use most often. There are several methods you can use to open a New Tab in Google Chrome. The asiest way to open a New Tab page is to just click the + icon next to the last tab at the top of your broswer window.

You can also use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+T to quickly open the New Tab page.

Otherwise you can open a new tab as follows.
Step 1:
Click on the page menu button in the right hand site.

Step 2:
Select “New Tab” option in the pop up menu.

 

Open link in New Tab

Google Chrome facilitates openning a new link in New Tab. You can do it by right clicking on the link that you want to open in a new tab and select “Open link in new tab” option.

 

 

Create a Duplicate Tab

Step 1:
Right click on the tab that you want to duplicate.

Step 2:
In the pop up menu, select “Duplicate” option.

 

How to Close Tabs in Google Chrome

The easiest way to close a tab in Google Chrome is by clicking on the (X) icon at left side of each opened tab.

You can also right click on the tab you want to close and select “Close tab” option.

Google chrome has introduces new features when closing tabs.

Close Other tabs

Close all the other tabs open in the Google Chrome browser except the current tab.

Close Tabs to the Right

If you have opened many tabs in Google Chrome, and need to close one section of tabs, you can use this feature.
Select a tab and right click on it, then select “Close tabs to the right”, it will close all the tabs which are on the right side of your selected tab.

Close Tabs Opened by this Tab

When you are searching something, such as doing a google search, many times you open up many links in new tabs. Google Chrome introduces this new feature which allows you to close all the tabs that are opened from links on a specific tab. So if you had opened tabs from a google search result page all you would have to do is right click on the tab of that result page and select “Close tabs opened by this tab” option. Then Google Chrome will close all the tabs opened from that google search result page.

 

Google Chrome Search

Type your search query in the address bar, and it automatically suggests related queries and popular websites, based on your input. (Google Suggest is the default service that provides auto-suggestions unless your default search engine uses an alternate service.)

 

Saving Bookmarks or Favorites in Google Chrome

To save your favorite web site in the Google Chrome bookmark section, follow these steps.

Step 1:
When you are on the web page you want to save, click on the   mark in Google Chrome Address bar.

Now your favorite web site has been added in the Google Chrome bookmark section. This video tutorial also helps to you learn how to store favorites in Google Chrome web browser.

 

 

How to Show and Hide Bookmark Folder in Google Chrome

By default Google Chrome hides the bookmark or favorite folder. But you can set it to appear on the menu bar. To do that follow these steps.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

 

Step 2:
Select the “Always show bookmarks bar” section so it shows a check mark in front of it.

 

Step 3:
Now you can see “Other bookmarks” folder in the menu bar.

 

If you need to hide this “Other bookmarks” folder please follow these steps.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Select the “Always show bookmarks bar” section so the check mark in front of it is gone.

 

 

Edit Google Chrome Bookmark or Favorites

If you need to edit bookmarks you have already added to the Google Chrome bookmark follow these steps to do it.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

 

Step 2:
Select the “Always show bookmarks bar” section so it shows a check mark in front of it.

 

Step 3:
Now click on the “Other bookmarks” button which appears below the address bar.

Step 4:
Select your bookmark and right click on it. Then click “Edit” button.

 

Step 5:
In the “Edit Bookmark window” you can edit your URL or the Name you have given it.

 

Create Bookmark or Favorites Folders in Google Chrome

Google Chrome Bookmark folders help to organize your favorites links. So if you need to add a folder follow these steps.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

 

Step 2:
Select the “Always show bookmarks bar” so there is a check mark in front of it.

 

Step 3:
Right click on the “Other bookmarks” button which appears below the address bar.

Step 4:
Click “Add folder” button.

Step 5:
Write the new folder name in “New folder” box. And click “OK” button.

Finally you can see your folder in the “Other bookmarks” folder.

 

How to View Google Chrome History

You can view the Google Chrome history file in two ways.

 

Using “Show full history” Button in Google Chrome New Tab or New Window

To view Google Chrome history in this way you need to follow these steps.

Step 1:
Open Google Chrome new tab or window.

(If you want to know the easiest ways to open Google Chrome new window or tab visit our pages on Google Chrome New Tabor Google Chrome New Window)

Step 2:
Click “Show full history” link in the bottom of the Google Chrome web browser window.

 

Using “Customize and Control Google Chrome” Menu

To view Google Chrome history you can also follow these steps.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

Step 2:
Click “History” button.
Google Chrome History button.

How to Search Google Chrome History

Google Chrome History search helps to make your work easy. Using Google Chrome history search bar you can find any web site you previously visited. To learn how to use Google Chrome history search, follow these steps.

Step 1:
Open “Google Chrome History View” page.

How to open Google Chrome history page

Step 2:
Type your search term in the “Search History” box.

Step 3:
Finally click “Search history” button. And you can see your result below in the page.

 

How to Clear Google Chrome History

In Google Chrome you can delete search history in two ways.

Clear Google Chrome History for a Selected Day

To delete Google Chrome history using this way follow these steps.

Step 1:
Open Google Chrome history page.

How to open Google Chrome history page

Step 2:
Select the date you want to delete Google Chrome history.

 

Step 3:
Finally click “Delete history for this day” button. And click “Ok” button in pop up message.

 

Clear Google Chrome History for a Selected Period

To delete Google Chrome history using this way follow these steps.

Step 1:
Click “Customize and Control Google Chrome” menu.

 

Step 2:
Click “Clear Browsing Data” button.

 

Step 3:
Put tick mark in front of “Clear browsing history” in the Clear Browsing Data window.

Step 4:
Select the time period you want to delete the data from.

Step 5:
Finally click “Clear Browsing Data” button.

 

 

 

 

 

Downloading Chrome on Your Mobile Device

1

Open your device’s store. On Android this is the Play Store, and on iOS this is the App Store. Chrome is available on Android 4.0 and later and iOS 5.0 and later.

 

2

Search for Chrome. It should be published by Google, Inc.

3

Install Chrome. Click the Install button to begin downloading and installing the app. You may need to accept permissions before you can install it.

 

4

Open the app. When you first open Chrome, you will be asked if you would like to sign in with your Google account. This will sync all of your saved bookmarks preferences, and browsing history with any other versions of Chrome you may use.