# NET JUNE 2013 PAPER – 3 SOLVED 2

1. The Software Maturity Index (SMI) is defined as

SMI = [Mf – (Fa + Fc + Fd)] / Mf

Where

Mf = the number of modules in the current release.

Fa = the number of modules in the current release that have been added.

Fc = the number of modules in the current release that have been changed.

Fd = the number of modules in the current release that have been deleted.

The product begins to stabilize when

(A) SMI approaches 1

(B) SMI approaches 0

(C) SMI approaches -1

(D) None of the above

Explanation:

SMI = (M – (A + C + D)) / M

SMI = 1 – N/M, where M is the total number of modules in the current version of the system and N is the number of modules added, changed or deleted between the previous version and this one.

SMI can be a measurement of product stability, when SMI approaches 1.0 the product is stable. When correlated with the time it takes to complete a version of the software, you have an indication of the maintenance effort needed.

1. Match the following:
2. Watson-Felix model                                    i. Failure intensity
3. Quick-Fix model                                          ii. Cost estimation
4. Putnam resource allocation model             iii. Project planning
5. Logarithmetic- Poisson Model                  iv. Maintenance

Codes:

a   b   c   d

(A) ii    i   iv   iii

(B) i    ii   iv   iii

(C) ii   i    iii   iv

(D) ii   iv  iii    i

Explanation:-
Watson Felix model is used for cost estimation.
Putnam resource allocation model is used in project planning.
Quick-Fix model is used in software maintenance.
Logarithmetic Poisson model is used in failure intensity.

1. …………… is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards.

(A) Incremental model

(B) Spiral model

(C) Cleanroom software engineering

(D) Agile model

Explanation:

The cleanroom software engineering process is a software development process intended to produce software with a certifiable level of reliability. The cleanroom process was originally developed by Harlan Mills and several of his colleagues including Alan Hevner at IBM.

It is a process model that removes defects before they can precipitate serious hazards.

1. Equivalence partitioning is a ……………… method that divides the input domain of a program into classes of data from which test cases can be derived.

(A) White-box testing

(B) Black-box testing

(C) Orthogonal array testing

(D) Stress testing

Explanation:

White Box Testing is a software testing method in which the internal structure/ design/ implementation of the item being tested is known to the tester. … Programming knowledge and implementation knowledge (internal structure and working) is required in White Box testing, which is not necessary in Black Box testing.

## White Box Testing Techniques:

• Statement Coverage – This technique is aimed at exercising all programming statements with minimal tests.
• Branch Coverage – This technique is running a series of tests to ensure that all branches are tested at least once.
• Path Coverage – This technique corresponds to testing all possible paths which means that each statement and branch is covered.

Typical black-box test design techniques include:

• Decision table testing
• All-pairs testing
• Equivalence partitioning
• Boundary value analysis
• Cause–effect graph
• Error guessing
• State transition testing
• Use case testing
• User story testing
• Domain analysis
• Combining technique

1. The following three golden rules:

(i) Place the user in control

(ii) Reduce the user’s memory load

(iii) Make the interface consistent are for

(A) User satisfaction

(B) Good interface design

(C) Saving system’s resources

(D) None of these

Explanation:

option b is correct for three golden rules mention above.

1. Software safety is a ………………. activity that focuses on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail.

(A) Risk mitigation, monitoring and management

(B) Software quality assurance

(C) Software cost estimation

(D) Defect removal efficiency

Explanation:

Software quality assurance (SQA) is a process that ensures that developed software meets and complies with defined or standardized quality specifications. SQA is an ongoing process within the software development life cycle (SDLC) that routinely checks the developed software to ensure it meets desired quality measures.

Software safety is a  Software quality assurance (SQA) activity that focuses on the identification and assessment of potential hazards that may affect software negatively and cause an entire system to fail.

1. The “PROJECT” operator of a relational algebra creates a new table that has always

(A) More columns than columns in original table

(B) More rows than original table

(C) Same number of rows as the original table

(D) Same number of columns as the original table

Explanation:

## Project Operation (∏)

PROJECT means Same number of rows as the original table.

## Select Operation (σ)

It selects tuples that satisfy the given predicate from a relation.

1. The employee information of an Organization is stored in the relation:

Employee (name, sex, salary, deptname)

Consider the following SQL query

Select deptname from Employee Where sex = ‘M’ group by deptname having avg (salary) > {select avg (salary) from Employee}

Output of the given query corresponds to

(A) Average salary of employee more than average salary of the organization.

(B) Average salary less than average salary of the organization.

(C) Average salary of employee equal to average salary of the organization.

(D) Average salary of male employees in a department is more than average salary of the organization.

Explanation:

Above Query shows option d.

1. For a database relation R(a, b, c, d) where the domains of a, b, c, d include only the atomic values. The functional dependency a → c, b → d holds in the following relation

(A) In 1NF not in 2NF             (B) In 2NF not in 3NF

(C) In 3NF                                 (D) In 1NF

Explanation:

ab is the candidate key

Since all a,b,c,d are atomic so the relation is in 1 NF.

Now check the FD s.

a->c(Prime->Non-Prime)

b->d(Prime->Non-Prime)

Since there are partial dependencies,so it is not 2 NF.

1. Match the following:
2. RAID 0          i. Bit interleaved parity
3. RAID 1          ii. Non redundant stripping
4. RAID 2           iii. Mirrored disks
5. RAID 3          iv. Error correcting codes

Codes:

a   b   c    d

(A) iv   i    ii    iii

(B) iii   iv   i    ii

(C) iii   i    iv   ii

(D) iii   ii   iv   i

Explanation:

RAID level 0: Striping
RAID level 1: Mirroring and performance improvements

RAID level 2: Disks storing error checking and correcting (ECC) information
RAID level 3: Byte-level parity
RAID level 4: Block-level parity
RAID level 5: Rotating parity
RAID level 6: Tolerates failure of two disk drives

1. The golden ratio ϕ and its conjugate ϕ’ both satisfy the equation

(A) x3 – x – 1 = 0                       (B) x3 + x – 1 = 0

(C) x2 – x – 1 = 0                      (D) x2 + x – 1 = 0

Explanation:

Golden ratio is represented by the symbol ϕ(Phi), and its conjugate is –ϕ(phi, also called as silver ratio). Both are satisfied by the equation, x2x1=0x2–x–1=0, as given in the explanation for Golden ratio. Since this equation is a quadratic equation, we are going to solve it the usual way, by calculating its roots.
Roots =b±b24ac2a.=−b±b2−4ac2a.

Given the equation, x2x1=0x2–x–1=0, value of a=1,b=1a=1,b=−1 and c=1c=−1. So, the equation for calculating root will become

1±1+421±1+42

=1±(5)2=1±(5)2

If we calculate the roots we will get the value 1.61 and -0.61 which are actually the values of Golden ratio and its conjugate. So, the Golden ratio and its conjugate both satisfy the equation x2x1=0x2–x–1=0

1. The solution of recurrence relation, T(n) = 2T(floor (√n)) + logn is

(A) O(n log log logn)               (B) O(n log logn)

(C) O(log logn)                         (D) O(logn log logn)

1. In any n-element heap, the number of nodes of height h is

(A) less than equal to [n/2h]

(B) greater than [n/2h]

(C) greater than [n/2h+1]

(D) less than equal to [n/2h+1]

Explanation:

A heap of size n has at most [ n/2h+1] nodes with height h. So, it can be less than equal to [ n/2h+1

1. A data file of 1,00,000 characters contains only the characters g-l, with the frequencies as indicated in table:

using the variable-length code by Huffman codes, the file can be encoded with

(A) 2,52,000 bits           (B) 2,64,000 bits

(C) 2,46,000 bits          (D) 2,24,000 bits

Explanation.

Probability of g.= 45/100=.45

Probability of j= 16/100=.16.

Probability of H= .13

Probability of i=.12

Probability of k=.9

Probability of l=.5.

A tree is formed.

G takes  I bit so it takes 45000 bits.

J takes 2 bits so it takes 32000 bits.

H takes 3 bits so it takes 39000 bits.

I takes 4 bits so it takes 48000bits.

K takes 5 bits so it takes 45000bits.

L takes 5 bits so it takes 25000bits

So it takes 224000 bits.

1. A vertex cover of an undirected graph G(V, E) is a subset V1 ⊆ V vertices such that

(A) Each pair of vertices in V1 is connected by an edge

(B) If (u, v) ∈ E then u ∈ V1 and v ∈ V1

(C) If (u, v) ∈ E then u ∈ V1 or v ∈ V1

(D) All pairs of vertices in V1 are not connected by an edge

1. In a fully connected mesh network with n devices, there are ……………. physical channels to link all devices.

(A) n(n–1)/2      (B) n(n+1)/2

(C) 2n                (D) 2n+1

Explanation:

A complete digraph is a directed graph  in which every pair of distinct vertices is connected by apair of unique edges

Triangle  need three edges to connect all nodes them selves..

Rectangle need 6 edges to connect all nodes themselves.

Pentagon. Needs 10 edges to connect all nodes themselves.

1. The baud rate of a signal is 600 baud/second. If each signal unit carries 6 bits, then the bit rate of a signal is ……………..

(A) 3600                        (B) 100

(C) 6/600           (D) None of the above

Explanation:

Bit rate = Baudrate x signal carries=> 600 x 60=> 3600

1. Match the following:
2. Data link layer                      i. Flow control
3. Network layer                       ii. Node to node delivery
4. Transport layer                     iii. Mail services
5. Application layer                 iv. Routing

Codes:

a   b    c   d

(A) ii    i    iv   iii

(B) ii   iv    i    iii

(C) ii    i    iii   iv

(D) ii   iv   iii    i

1. An image is 1024∗800 pixels with 3 bytes/pixel. Assume the image is uncompressed. How long does it take to transmit it over a 10-Mbps Ethernet ?

(A) 196.6 seconds                   (B) 19.66 seconds

(C) 1.966 seconds                   (D) 0.1966 seconds

Explanation:
size of the image is 1024 * 800 pixels = 819200 pixels.

No of bytes / pixel = 3
So, total no of bytes = 819200 X 3 = 2457600 bytes

now multiply with 8
Therefore, Total no of bits = 2457600 X 8 = 19660800 bits

The data rate of a computer network connection is normally measured in units of bits per second(bps).
One kilobit per second equals 1000 bits per second.
One megabit per second(Mbps) equals 1000 kbps = 1000 X 1000 bps .
10 Mbps = 1000 X 1000 X 10 = 10000000.

Therefore, time taken for transmission = 19660800 / 10000000 = 1.96608 seconds.

1. The ………….. measures the relative strengths of two signals or a signal at two different points.

(A) frequency               (B) attenuation

(C) throughput             (D) decibel

Explanation:

Attenuation is a general term that refers to any reduction in the strength of a signal.

In data transmission, network throughput is the amount of data moved successfully from one place to another in a given time period, and typically measured in bits per second (bps), as in megabits per second (Mbps) or gigabits per second (Gbps).

The standard unit of frequency is the hertz, abbreviated Hz. If a current completes one cycle per second, then the frequency is 1 Hz; 60 cycles per second equals 60 Hz (the standard alternating-current utility frequency in some countries).

the decibel (abbreviated as dB, and also as dband DB) is a logarithmic expression of the ratio between two signal power, voltage, or current levels. In acoustics, the decibel is used as an absolute indicator of sound power per unit area.

1. Which one of the following media is multidrop?

(A) Shielded Twisted pair cable

(B) Unshielded Twisted pair cable

(C) Thick Coaxial cable

(D) Fiber Optic cable

Explanation:

Twisted Pair is a pair of copper wires, with diameters of 0.4-0.8 mm, twisted together and wrapped with a plastic coating.

STP is heavier and more difficult to manufacture, but it can greatly improve the signaling rate in a given transmission scheme Twisting provides cancellation of magnetically induced fields and currents on a pair of conductors.

Thick Coaxial cable is used for multidrop.

1. What is the baud rate of the standard 10 Mbps Ethernet ?

(A) 10 megabaud         (B) 20 megabaud

(C) 30 megabaud        (D) 40 megabaud

Explanation:

The Ethernet uses Manchester encoding, which means it has two signal periods per bit sent. The data rate of the standard Ethernet is 10 Mbps, so the baud rate is twice that, or 20 megabaud.

1. At any iteration of simplex method, if Δj (Zj – Cj) corresponding to any non-basic variable Xj is obtained as zero, the solution under the test is

(A) Degenerate solution

(B) Unbounded solution

(C) Alternative solution

(D) Optimal solution

1. A basic feasible solution to a m-origin, n-destination transportation problem is said to be ………………. if the number of positive allocations are less than m + n – 1.

(A) degenerate             (B) non-degenerate

(C) unbounded                        (D) unbalanced

1. The total transportation cost in an initial basic feasible solution to the following transportation problem using Vogel’s Approximation method is

(A) 76     (B) 80

(C) 90     (D) 96

1. An actor in an animation is a small program invoked …………… per frame to determine the characteristics of some object in the animation.

(A) once            (B) twice

(C) 30 times      (D) 60 times

Explanation:

An actor in an animation is a small program invoked once per frame to determine the characteristics of some object in the animation.

1. Bresenham line drawing algorithm is attractive because it uses

(A) Real arithmetic only

(B) Integer arithmetic only

(C) Floating point arithmetic

(D) Real and integer arithmetic

Explanation:

Bresenham’s line algorithm is an algorithm that determines the points of an n-dimensional raster that should be selected in order to form a close approximation to a straight line between two points.

It avoids  costly floating point arithmetic.It is a classic example of an incremental algorithm that computes the location of each pixel along the line based on information about the previous pixel. It uses only integer values and avoids any multiplications.

1. The refresh rate above which a picture stops flickering and fuses into a steady image is called ………………

(A) Crucial fusion frequency

(B) Current frequency fusion

(C) Critical fusion frequency

(D) Critically diffused frequency

1. In homogenous coordinate system (x, y, z) the points with z = 0 are called

(A) Cartesian points    (B) Parallel points

(C) Origin point                        (D) Point at infinity

1. If 40 black lines interleaved with 40 white lines can be distinguished across one inch, the resolution is

(A) 40 line-pairs per inch

(B) 80 line-pairs per inch

(C) 1600 lines per inch

(D) 40 lines per inch

Explanation:

40 black lines

40 white lines

both across 1 inch so 40 line-pairs one inch

ans is A

1. Images tend to be very large collection of data. The size of memory required for a 1024 by 1024 image in which the colour of each pixel is represented by a n-bit number, (in an 8 bit machines) is

(A) n × 8 MB                             (B) n / 8 MB

(C) (1024 × 1024) / 8 MB        (D) 1024 MB

Explanation:

1MB=1024*1024

Size of image=1024*1024 pixels

1 pixel takes n bits so 1024*1024 pixels takes 1024*1024*n bits.

8 bits make 1 unit of memory.

1 bit make 1/8 unit of memory.

n MB need  n MB/8 unit of memory.

1. Arrays in C language can have …………….. with reference to memory representation.

(A) n-subscripts                       (B) two-subscripts

(C) only one subscript                        (D) three subscripts only

1. Refer the points as listed below:

(a) What are the operator precedence rules ?

(b) What are the operator associativity rules ?

(c) What is the order of operand evaluation ?

(d) Are there restrictions on operand evaluation side effects ?

Which of the above must be considered as primary design issues for arithmetic expressions ?

(A) (a), (b) and (c)

(B) (a), (c) and (d)

(C) (a), (b) and (d)

(D) (a), (b), (c) and (d)

1. Horn clauses are special kinds of propositions which can be described as

(A) Single atomic proposition on left side.

(B) Single or multiple atomic proposition on left side.

(C) A single atomic proposition on left side and a single atomic proposition on right side.

(D) A single atomic proposition on left side or an empty left side.

1. Which of the following is/are the fundamental semantic model(s) of parameter passing?

(A) in mode                   (B) out mode

(C) in-out mode            (D) all of the above

1. The grammar with production rules S → aSb |SS|λ generates language L given by:

(A) L = {w∈{a, b}* | na(w) = nb(w) and na(v) ≥ nb(v) where v is any prefix of w}

(B) L = {w∈{a, b}* | na(w) = nb(w) and na(v) ≤ nb(v) where v is any prefix of w}

(C) L = {w∈{a, b}* | na(w) ≠ nb(w) and na(v) ≥ nb(v) where v is any prefix of w}

(D) L = {w∈{a, b}* | na(w) ≠ nb(w) and na(v) ≤ nb(v) where v is any prefix of w}

1. A pushdown automation M = (Q, Σ, Γ, δ, q0, z, F) is set to be deterministic subject to which of the following condition(s), for every q ∈ Q, a ∈ Σ ∪ {λ} and b ∈ Γ

(s1) δ(q, a, b) contains at most one element

(s2) if δ(q, λ, b) is not empty then δ(q, c, b) must be empty for every c ∈ Σ

(A) only s1                    (B) only s2

(C) both s1 and s2       (D) neither s1 nor s2

1. For every context free grammar (G) there exists an algorithm that passes any w ∈ L(G) in number of steps proportional to

(A) ln|w|             (B) |w|

(C) |w|2               (D) |w|3

1. Match the following:
2. Context sensitive language          i. Deterministic finite automation
3. Regular grammar                            ii. Recursive enumerable
4. Context free grammar                     iii. Recursive language
5. Unrestricted grammar                     iv. Pushdown automation

Codes:

a   b    c   d

(A) ii    i    iv   iii

(B) iii   iv   i    ii

(C) iii   i    iv   ii

(D) ii    iv   i   iii

1. The statements s1 and s2 are given as:

s1: Context sensitive languages are closed under intersection, concatenation, substitution and inverse homomorphism.

s2: Context free languages are closed under complementation, substitution and homomorphism.

Which of the following is correct statement?

(A) Both s1 and s2 are correct.

(B) s1 is correct and s2 is not correct.

(C) s1 is not correct and s2 is correct.

(D) Both s1 and s2 are not correct.

1. Which one of the following is not an addressing mode?

(A) Register indirect    (B) Auto increment

(C) Relative indexed   (D) Immediate operand

1. Computers can have instruction formats with

1. Which is not a typical program control instruction?

(A) BR                (B) JMP

(C) SHL                         (D) TST

1. Interrupt which arises from illegal or erroneous use of an instruction or data is

(A) Software interrupt             (B) Internal interrupt

(C) External interrupt              (D) All of the above

1. The simplified function in product of sums of Boolean function F(W, X, Y, Z) = Σ(0, 1, 2, 5, 8, 9, 10) is

(A) (W’ + X’) (Y’ + Z’) (X’ + Z)

(B) (W’ + X’) (Y’ + Z’) (X’ + Z’)

(C) (W’ + X’) (Y’ + Z) (X’ + Z)

(D) (W’ + X’) (Y + Z’) (X’ + Z)

1. Match the following:
2. TTL                 i. High component density
3. ECL               ii. Low power consumption
4. MOS               iii. Evolution of “diodetransistor- logic”
5. CMOS           iv. High speed digital circuits

Codes:

a   b   c    d

(A) iii   ii    i    iv

(B) i    iv   iii   ii

(C) iii  iv    i    ii

(D) i    ii    iii   iv

1. Match the following:
2. Foreign keys                                                i. Domain constraint
3. Private key                                        ii. Referential integrity
4. Event control action model                        iii. Encryption
5. Data security                                    iv. Trigger

Codes:

a   b   c   d

(A) iii   ii    i   iv

(B) ii   i    iv  iii

(C) iii  iv   i   ii

(D) i    ii   iii  iv

1. When an array is passed as a parameter to a function which of the following statements is correct?

(A) The function can change values in the original array.

(B) The function cannot change values in the original array.

(C) Results in compilation error.

(D) Results in runtime error.

1. Suppose you want to delete the name that occurs before “Vivek” in an alphabetical listing. Which of the following data structures shall be most efficient for this operation?

1. What will be the output of the following segment of the program?

main( )

{

char *s = “hello world”;

int i = 7;

printf(“%, *s”, i, s);

}

(A) Syntax error            (B) hello w

(C) hello                                    (D) o world

1. Trace the error:

void main( )

{

int *b, &a;

*b = 20

printf(“%d, %d”, a, *b)

}

(A) No error                   (B) Logical error

(C) Syntax error           (D) Semantic error

1. Match the following:
2. calloc( )         i. Frees previously allocated space
3. free( )             ii. Modifies previously allocated space
4. malloc( )        iii. Allocates space for array
5. realloc( )        iv. Allocates requested size of space

Codes:

a   b   c   d

(A) iii   i    iv   ii

(B) iii   ii    i   iv

(C) iii   iv   i   ii

(D) iv   ii   iii   i

1. Binary symmetric channel uses

(A) Half duplex protocol

(B) Full duplex protocol

(C) Bit oriented protocol

(D) None of the above

1. Hamming distance between 100101000110 and 110111101101 is

(A) 3       (B) 4

(C) 5       (D) 6

1. Given code word 1110001010 is to be transmitted with even parity check bit. The encoded word to be transmitted for this code is

(A) 11100010101         (B) 11100010100

(C) 1110001010           (D) 111000101

1. The number of distinct binary images which can be generated from a given binary image of right M × N are

(A) M + N           (B) M × N

(C) 2M + N            (D) 2MN

1.  If f(x, y) is a digital image, then x, y and amplitude values of f are

(A) Finite                                   (B) Infinite

(C) Neither finite nor infinite (D) None of the above

1. Consider the following processes with time slice of 4 milliseconds (I/O requests are ignored):

Process                         A         B         C         D

Arrival time        0          1          2          3

CPU cycle         8          4          9          5

The average turn around time of these processes will be

(A) 19.25 milliseconds                        (B) 18.25 milliseconds

(C) 19.5 milliseconds              (D) 18.5 milliseconds

1. A job has four pages A, B, C, D and the main memory has two page frames only. The job needs to process its pages in following order:

ABACABDBACD

Assuming that a page interrupt occurs when a new page is brought in the main memory, irrespective of whether the page is swapped out or not. The number of page interrupts in FIFO and LRU page replacement algorithms are

(A) 9 and 7        (B) 7 and 6

(C) 9 and 8        (D) 8 and 6

1. Suppose S and Q are two semaphores initialized to 1. P1 and P2 are two processes which are sharing resources.

P1 has statements                 P2 has statements

wait(S) ;                                     wait(Q) ;

wait(Q) ;                                     wait(S) ;

critical section1;                       critical section 2;

signal(S) ;                                 signal(Q) ;

signal(Q) ;                                 signal(S) ;

Their execution may sometimes lead to an undesirable situation called

(A) Starvation               (B) Race condition

1. An operating system using banker’s algorithm for deadlock avoidance has ten dedicated devices (of same type) and has three processes P1, P2 and P3 with maximum resource requirements of 4, 5 and 8 respectively. There are two states of allocation of devices as follows:

State 1   Processes                 P1       P2       P3

Devices allocated    2          3          4

State 2   Processes                 P1       P2       P3

Devices allocated    0          2          4

Which of the following is correct?

(A) State 1 is unsafe and state 2 is safe.

(B) State 1 is safe and state 2 is unsafe.

(C) Both, state 1 and state 2 are safe.

(D) Both, state 1 and state 2 are unsafe.

1. Let the time taken to switch between user mode and kernel mode of execution be T1 while time taken to switch between two user processes be T2. Which of the following is correct?

(A) T1 < T2

(B) T1 > T2

(C) T1 = T2

(D) Nothing can be said about the relation between T1 and T2.

1. Working set model is used in memory management to implement the concept of

(A) Swapping               (B) Principal of Locality

(C) Segmentation        (D) Thrashing

1. A UNIX file system has 1 KB block size and 4-byte disk addresses. What is the maximum file size if the inode contains ten direct block entries, one single indirect block entry, one double indirect block entry and one triple indirect block entry?

(A) 30 GB          (B) 64 GB

(C) 16 GB          (D) 1 GB

1. A thread is usually defined as a light weight process because an Operating System (OS) maintains smaller data structure for a thread than for a process. In relation to this, which of the following statement is correct?

(A) OS maintains only scheduling and accounting information for each thread.

(B) OS maintains only CPU registers for each thread.

(C) OS does not maintain a separate stack for each thread.

(D) OS does not maintain virtual memory state for each thread.

1. The versions of windows operating system like windows XP and window Vista uses following file system:

(A) FAT-16                                (B) FAT-32

(C) NTFS (NT File System)    (D) All of the above

1. Which one of the following is a correct implementation of the metapredicate “not” in PROLOG (Here G represents a goal) ?

(A) not(G):– !, call(G), fail.

not(G).

(B) not(G):– call(G), !, fail.

not(G).

(C) not(G):– call(G), fail, !.

not(G).

(D) not(G):– call(G), fail.

not(G):– !.

1. Which one of the following is not an informed search technique?

(A) Hill climbing search          (B) Best first search

(C) A* search                            (D) Depth first search

1. If we convert

∃u ∀v ∀x ∃y (P(f(u),v, x, y) → Q(u,v,y)) to

∀v ∀x (P(f(a),v, x, g(v,x)) → Q(a,v,g(v,x)))

This process is known as

(A) Simplification         (B) Unification

(C) Skolemization        (D) Resolution

1. Given two jugs of capacities 5 litres and 3 litres with no measuring markers on them. Assume that there is endless supply of water. Then the minimum number of states to measure 4 litres water will be

(A) 3       (B) 4

(C) 5       (D) 7

1. The map colouring problem can be solved using which of the following technique?

(A) Means-end analysis

(B) Constraint satisfaction

(C) AO* search

1. Which of the following is a knowledge representation technique used to represent knowledge about stereotype situation?

(A) Semantic network

(B) Frames

(C) Scripts

(D) Conceptual Dependency

1. A fuzzy set A on R is …………….. iff A(λx1 + (1 – λ)x2) ≥ min [A(x1), A(x2)] for all x1, x2 ∈ R and all λ ∈[0, 1], where min denotes the minimum operator.

(A) Support       (B) α-cut

(C) Convex       (D) Concave

1. If A and B are two fuzzy sets with membership functions

μA(x) = {0.6, 0.5, 0.1, 0.7, 0.8}

μB(x) = {0.9, 0.2, 0.6, 0.8, 0.5}

Then the value of μ(AB)’(x) will be

(A) {0.9, 0.5, 0.6, 0.8, 0.8}

(B) {0.6, 0.2, 0.1, 0.7, 0.5}

(C) {0.1, 0.5, 0.4, 0.2, 0.2}

(D) {0.1, 0.5, 0.4, 0.2, 0.3}

Explanation:

1. Consider a single perception with weights as given in the following figure:

The above perception can solve

(A) OR problem            (B) AND problem

(C) XOR problem         (D) All of the above